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J Neurol. 1993;240(4):223-31.

AIDS dementia complex complicated by cytomegalovirus encephalopathy.

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Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine 90024.


We have studied longitudinally ten patients with AIDS encephalopathy with respect to pathogenetic roles of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three patients manifested typical AIDS dementia complex (ADC) (initially without retinitis and with slowly progressive cognitive, motor and behavioral abnormalities which were zidovudine-responsive, and relatively preserved CD4+ T cells), and seven patients presented with AIDS dementia complex complicated by CMV encephalopathy (ACE) (with CMV retinitis, peripheral neuropathy, altered sensorium, and rapidly declining clinical and immunological status). Whereas only HIV antibody was elevated in the spinal fluid of patients with ADC, both virus infections were active in the central nervous system of patients with ACE as shown by HIV p24 antigenemia and antigenrrhachia, elevated HIV and CMV antibody in the spinal fluid, disseminated CMV infection with retinitis, and basilar ventriculoencephalitis with multinucleated cytomegalic cells containing CMV and HIV proteins and CMV DNA. The recognition of ADC and ACE is important, since some patients with ACE may respond to ganciclovir or foscarnet.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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