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J Invest Dermatol. 1993 Jun;100(6):790-4.

Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in UV-DNA induce release of soluble mediators that activate the human immunodeficiency virus promoter.

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Applied Genetics Inc., Freeport, New York.


Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of human cells induced expression of a stably maintained fusion gene consisting of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat promoter controlling the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Two experiments demonstrated that DNA damage can initiate induction: UV induction was greater in DNA repair-deficient cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient than in repair-proficient cells, and transfection of UV-irradiated DNA into unirradiated cells activated gene expression. Increased repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by T4 endonuclease V abrogated viral gene activation, suggesting that dimers in DNA are one signal leading to increased gene expression. This signal was spread from UV-irradiated cells to unirradiated cells by co-cultivation, implicating the release of soluble factors. Irradiation of cells from DNA repair-deficiency diseases resulted in greater release of soluble factors than irradiation of cells from unaffected individuals. These results suggest that UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can activate the human immunodeficiency virus promoter at least in part by a signal-transduction pathway that includes secretion of soluble mediators.

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