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J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 25;268(9):6714-20.

Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138.


Increased intracellular cAMP and Ca2+ levels can activate transcription of a number of eukaryotic genes through a common promoter element, the cAMP/Ca2+ response element. This element is the binding site for activating transcription factor (ATF)/CREB proteins, an extensive transcription factor family. Here we report that one member of this family, ATF-1, can mediate both Ca2+ and cAMP transcriptional responses, but that the responses to the two pathways differ in magnitude. In contrast, another family member, CREB, has been shown to mediate Ca2+ and cAMP responses to similar levels. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism that allows cells to integrate and differentiate gene regulation by cAMP and Ca2+.

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