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Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1993 Sep;102(9):705-11.

Development of the paranasal sinuses in children: implications for paranasal sinus surgery.

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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital, Graz, Austria.


The pediatric nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, when compared to those in adults, differ not only in size but also in proportion. Knowledge of the unique anatomy and pneumatization of children's sinuses is an important prerequisite to understanding the pathogenesis of sinusitis and its complications. It is also important in evaluation of radiographs and in planning surgical interventions. In order to study the development of the paranasal sinuses in children and relate clinical anatomy to sinus surgery, the sinuses in 102 pediatric skulls and cadaver heads were measured. The results were classified by stage of development into 4 different age groups: newborn and 1 to 4, 4 to 8, and 8 to 12 years. The characteristics of each group and their clinical importance for paranasal sinus surgery are described.

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