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Pediatr Pathol. 1993 Jul-Aug;13(4):485-504.

Pathology of the liver in severe combined immunodeficiency and DiGeorge syndrome.

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Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.


Review of liver biopsy or autopsy material from 33 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency or combined immunodeficiency and four patients with DiGeorge syndrome revealed a wide range of hepatic pathology. The most common abnormality was graft-versus-host disease (16 patients), followed by viral infection (4 patients had adenovirus hepatitis, 3 had cytomegalovirus hepatitis). Centrilobular fibrosis with or without veno-occlusive disease was seen in five patients. Three patients had nonspecific hepatitis, four had changes attributed to total parenteral nutrition, and two had lymphoproliferative disorders involving the liver. Both patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had received transplants. Two patients had resolving necrosis probably secondary to non-A, non-B hepatitis. One had atypical mycobacterial infection. Hemosiderosis was a common nonspecific abnormality, seen in nine patients. All patients with hepatic graft-versus-host disease had received transplants or nonirradiated blood products. Hepatic graft-versus-host disease varied in severity from hepatic necrosis with destruction of both large and small bile ducts in a transfusion-associated case to subtle damage to interlobular bile ducts. Even minimal bile duct changes correlated with the clinical impression of graft-versus-host disease in these patients. Late chronic graft-versus-host disease was not seen in any patient, although acute graft-versus-host disease sometimes occurred late after transplant.

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