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J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep;168(3):647-56.

Maternal immunization with influenza or tetanus toxoid vaccine for passive antibody protection in young infants.

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  • 1Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030.


Women in the last trimester of pregnancy were given trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV; A/Sichuan/H3N2, A/Taiwan/H1N1, B/Victoria) or tetanus toxoid (TT). Maternal blood was drawn before immunization and at delivery (median, 5 weeks later); infant blood was obtained within 5 days of birth and 2 months later. Antibody responses to TIV and TT were determined by microneutralization assay and ELISA. T cell response was determined by lymphocyte proliferation. Maternal seroconversion to vaccine antigens was found to one or more influenza antigen in all TIV recipients and to TT in 9 of 13 TT recipients. Significantly higher IgG antibodies to maternal vaccine antigens were present in cord and infant serum. Significant blastogenic responses were seen to influenza A and B in maternal cells of TIV-immunized women but not in cord or infant lymphocytes. Maternal immunization resulted in higher infant levels of vaccine-specific IgG antibody but not in the transfer of specific T lymphocyte response(s) or production of neonatal IgM antibody.

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