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Cancer. 1993 Sep 1;72(5):1773-8.

Some occupational exposures as risk factors for malignant lymphomas.

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Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.



Malignant lymphomas (Hodgkin disease [HD] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL]) have been subject to several epidemiologic studies and found to be associated with various environmental exposures, especially solvents, wood, and phenoxy herbicides.


Various determinants for HD and NHL were evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 31 cases of HD, 93 cases of NHL, and 204 referents, all alive. Information on these determinants, mainly occupational exposures, was obtained by mailed questionnaires.


Crude odds ratios were increased for various occupational exposures, i.e., exposures to solvents, pesticides, metal fumes, welding, and fresh wood, and nursing. Further analyses based on logistic regression indicated exposure to phenoxy herbicides and fresh wood among sawmill workers, lumberjacks, and paper pulp workers to be significant risk factors for HD. Welding, working as a lumberjack, nursing, and ex-smoking were associated with a significantly increased risk for NHL. Radiographic examinations were negatively associated with HD, as was office work for NHL.


The results were mainly in agreement with the findings of earlier studies, but diverging associations also appeared.

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