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Psychosom Med. 1993 May-Jun;55(3):287-97.

Long-lasting hormonal alterations to extreme stress in humans: normative or maladaptive?

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Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York.


The biological consequences of stress have been studied for over half a decade, however, little is known about persistent biological alterations after extreme stress in humans. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a syndrome that occurs in some individuals after exposure to extreme stress. In this review, we summarize some of our studies of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alterations in PTSD and compare and contrast these findings with knowledge concerning biological changes following stress.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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