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J Magn Reson Imaging. 1993 May-Jun;3(3):531-9.

Pulsed magnetization transfer spin-echo MR imaging.

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Department of Radiology, Lucas MRS Center, Stanford University, CA 94305.


Cross relaxation between macromolecular protons and water protons is known to be important in biologic tissue. In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences, selective saturation of the characteristically short T2 macromolecular proton pool can produce contrast called magnetization transfer contrast, based on the cross-relaxation process. Selective saturation can be achieved with continuous wave irradiation several kilohertz off resonance or short, intense 0 degree pulses on resonance. The authors analyze 0 degree binomial pulses for T2 selective saturation, present design guidelines, and demonstrate the use of these pulses in spin-echo imaging sequences in healthy volunteers and patients. Using the phenomenologic Bloch equations modified for two-site exchange, the authors derive the analytic expressions for water proton relaxation under periodic pulsed saturation of the macromolecular protons. This relaxation is shown to be monoexponential, with a rate constant dependent on the saturation pulse repetition rate and the individual and cross-relaxation rates.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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