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Ciba Found Symp. 1993;176:96-106; discussion 106-11.

G proteins in signal transduction: the regulation of phospholipase C.

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Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9041.


The hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate by specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes produces two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) of the Gq subfamily activate the PLC beta 1 isoform of PLC. We have purified three isozymes of PLC beta: PLC beta 1 and PLC beta 3 from rat brain and PLC beta 2 from HL-60 cells. Whereas the beta 1 and beta 2 isozymes appear restricted to a few cell types, beta 3 is broadly distributed. Gq alpha (the alpha subunit of the Gq subfamily) can activate all three isoforms but PLC beta 2 is much less sensitive. Thus all three enzymes are potential effectors for pertussis toxin-insensitive regulation by hormones. The three beta isozymes can also be activated by purified beta gamma subunits. The PLC beta 3 isoform gives the greatest activation with beta gamma; PLC beta 1 is least responsive. The results indicate that all the known isoforms of mammalian PLC beta can be regulated at unique sites by both Gq alpha and beta gamma subunits. The effect of beta gamma subunits may provide a pathway for the regulation of PLC beta isozymes by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins or may indicate that the alpha subunit of Gq and its associated beta gamma both participate in regulation of the same phospholipase molecule.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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