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Anticancer Res. 1993 Nov-Dec;13(6A):2207-12.

Immunocytochemical study on internalization of anti-carbohydrate monoclonal antibodies.

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Division of Immunology, Tokyo Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., Japan.


The fate of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) after binding to the cell surface is one of the important factors for application of mAbs in therapy. For mAbs to remain on the cell surface for a long time is preferable character for complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). On the other hand, quick internalization of mAbs into cytoplasm is advantageous for cytotoxic effects of toxins or cytotoxic drugs conjugated with mAbs. In this study we investigated the localization of anti-carbohydrate mAbs in vitro by immunocytochemical methods at the electron microscopic level. Anti-ganglioside GM3 mAb (mouse IgM) was localized both in cytoplasmic vesicles and on the cell surface membrane of mouse melanoma cells after incubation for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Anti-ganglioside GM2 mAb (mouse IgM), anti-ganglioside GD2 mAb (mouse IgG3) anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb (mouse IgG3) mainly existed on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma cells, human neuroblastoma cells and human melanoma cells, respectively, after incubation for 30 min at 37 degrees C. On the other hand, anti-sialyl Lea mAb (mouse IgG1) was intensively incorporated into the cytoplasm of human colon tumor cells under the same conditions. Anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb and anti-sialyl Lea mAb were radiolabelled with 125Iodine and traced in in vitro culture. When the cells were incubated in the presence of the 125I-mAb for 90 min on ice, the ratio of intracellular counts to surface counts was 8/92 for anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb and 31/69 for anti-sialyl Lea mAb respectively. After the subsequent incubation for 60 min at 37 degrees C, the ratio altered to 13/87 for anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb and 54/46 for anti-sialyl Lea antigen mAb. This study suggested that internalization of anti-carbohydrate mAbs after the binding to the cell surface was different among the mAbs depending on the character of antigens. In conclusion, anti-ganglioside mAbs have beneficial characters for CDC or ADCC while anti-sialyl Lea mAb is suitable for immunoconjugates.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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