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Br J Radiol. 1993 Dec;66(792):1142-50.

A frameless method for stereotactic radiotherapy.

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Northwest Medical Physics Center, Lynnwood, WA 98036-7306.


A frameless method for stereotactic multiple arc radiotherapy (SMART) is described. Three short gold wires are implanted in the scalp approximately 100 mm apart. These are localized in a computed tomographic or angiographic study along with the target. Subsequently the gold markers are localized on beam films and the target position calculated using a computer program ISOLOC. This program provides the couch movements required to move the target to the isocentre and a micropositioner attached to the couch is used to make the adjustment. Beam films are repeated until the movements required are less than 1 mm in any direction. It is shown that the simple procedures of implanting the markers subcutaneously do not provide a stable reference system in about 25% of patients and the markers are now screwed into the cranium. The precision of the method is evaluated by phantom studies and measurements taken during several hundred treatments.

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