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J Gen Intern Med. 1993 Nov;8(11):626-34.

Infections due to antibiotic-resistant gram-positive cocci.

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Department of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey 17033.


Gram-positive cocci are becoming increasingly resistant to traditionally used antimicrobial agents. Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, the enterococcus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly encountered of such pathogens in clinical practice. Clinicians should be keenly aware of the usual types of infections that are caused by these organisms and the importance of documenting susceptibilities of infecting strains. The basic mechanisms of resistance should be familiar to clinicians so that an inappropriate empiric regimen will not be selected (e.g., addition of a beta-lactamase inhibitor for penicillin-resistant pneumococci). Vancomycin remains the agent of choice, sometimes in combination with gentamicin and/or rifampin, for most cases of infection due to these resistant gram-positive organisms. Last, increased efforts toward prevention, such as strict adherence to infection control measures, selective use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and increased use of pneumococcal vaccine, may be useful to help stem the rising tide of infections due to resistant gram-positive cocci.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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