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J Lab Clin Med. 1994 Jan;123(1):89-93.

Induction of endotoxin tolerance with monophosphoryl lipid A in peritonitis: importance of localized therapy.

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Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center, New York, NY 10011.


Endotoxin is a principle mediator of septic shock during peritonitis. Induction of endotoxin tolerance with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a nontoxic derivative of lipid A, improves survival from peritonitis. The induction of tolerance with intravenous versus intraperitoneal administration of MPL before peritonitis was compared. Mice were pretreated with varying doses of MPL (intravenously) and MPL (intraperitoneally) 48 hours before peritonitis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. Survival was determined at 72 hours, and serum and peritoneal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) were assayed at 24 hours. Survival was 0% in control animals, 20% in MPL (100 micrograms intravenously) animals, and 70% in MPL (100 micrograms intraperitoneally) animals (p < 0.05 versus control, MPL [intravenously]). Cytokine release was compared in control animals and animals receiving MPL 100 micrograms (intraperitoneally) or MPL 100 micrograms (intravenously). In MPL (intraperitoneally)-treated animals, serum and peritoneal TNF-alpha levels, 160 +/- 7 pg/ml and 204 +/- 25 pg/ml, were significantly lower than those in control animals, 429 +/- 34 pg/ml and 642 +/- 108 pg/ml, and MPL (intravenously)-treated animals, 302 +/- 68 pg/ml and 495 +/- 97 pg/ml, (p < 0.05). Similarly, IL-1 alpha levels were significantly lower in MPL (intraperitoneally)-treated animals than in control animals. Because the development of tolerance appears to be a cytokine-mediated process, a subsequent experiment compared peritoneal and serum TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha levels at 2 hours after MPL (intraperitoneally) or MPL (intravenously). Peritoneal TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha release was greatest after MPL (intraperitoneally); serum levels were greatest after MPL (intravenously).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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