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J Pak Med Assoc. 1993 Sep;43(9):176-7.

Association of upper gastrointestinal lesions with addictions.

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  • 1Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi.


The association of upper gastrointestinal (G.I.) lesions with various addictions was studied in 383 consecutive patients endoscoped over a year. Of the total, 179 (47%) had no addictions and 204 (53%) were addicted to either cigarette smoking (70%), tobacco chewing with pan (23%), pan alone (5%) or alcohol (2%). Overall, 78% cases with and 59% without addictions had an upper G.I. lesion on endoscopy (P < 0.001). Duodenal ulcer was commonest lesion in all types of addiction.

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