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J Mol Evol. 1993 Nov;37(5):525-43.

Molecular phylogeny of Drosophila based on ribosomal RNA sequences.

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Laboratoire de Biologie et Génétique évolutives, C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, France.


Nucleotide sequences of 72 species of Drosophilidae were determined for divergent D1 and D2 domains (representing 200 and 341 nucleotides respectively in D. melanogaster) of large ribosomal RNA, using the rRNA direct sequencing method. Molecular phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using both distance and parsimony methods and the robustness of the nodes was evaluated by the bootstrap procedure. The trees obtained by these methods revealed four main lineages or clades which do not correspond to the taxonomical hierarchy. In our results, the genus Chymomyza is associated with the subgenus Scaptodrosophila of the genus Drosophila and their cluster constitutes the most ancient clade. The two other clades are constituted of groups belonging to the subgenus Sophophora of the genus Drosophila: the so-called Neotropical clade including the willistoni and saltans groups and the obscura-melanogaster clade itself split into three lineages: (1) obscura group + ananassae subgroup, (2) montium subgroup, and (3) melanogaster + Oriental subgroups. The fourth clade, the Drosophila one, contains three lineages. D. polychaeta, D. iri, and D. fraburu are branched together and constitute the most ancient lineage; the second lineage includes the annulimana, bromeliae, dreyfusi, melanica, mesophragmatica, repleta, robusta, and virilis groups. The third lineage is composed of the immigrans and the cardini, funebris, guaramunu, guarani, histrio, pallidipennis, quinaria, and tripunctata groups. The genera Samoaia, Scaptomyza, and Zaprionus are branched within the Drosophila clade. Although these four clades appear regularly in almost all tree calculations, additional sequencing will be necessary to determine their precise relationships.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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