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J Infect Dis. 1994 Jan;169(1):68-76.

A randomized controlled trial of cold-adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2581.


A double-blind, randomized controlled trial over 5 years compared the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of cold-adapted and inactivated influenza A vaccines in 5210 normal subjects. Both vaccines were well tolerated. Inactivated vaccine significantly increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. Significant titer rises were also noted after cold-adapted vaccine but of lesser magnitude than with inactivated vaccine. The efficacy of inactivated vaccine in preventing culture-positive influenza was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58%-87%) for H1N1 disease and 74% (95% CI, 52%-86%) for H3N2; for cold-adapted vaccine, 85% (95% CI, 70%-92%) and 58% (95% CI, 29%-75%), respectively. The efficacy of inactivated vaccine in preventing a four-fold rise in antibody titer over the influenza season was 69% (95% CI, 61%-76%) for H1N1 and 73% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for H3N2; for cold-adapted vaccine, 54% (95% CI, 44%-62%) and 32% (95% CI, 17%-44%), respectively. Cold-adapted and inactivated influenza vaccines are safe and effective for preventing influenza A disease.

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