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Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Dec;307(2):272-85.

ATP sulfurylase from higher plants: kinetic and structural characterization of the chloroplast and cytosol enzymes from spinach leaf.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, Davis 95616.


Two forms of ATP sulfurylase were purified from spinach leaf. The major (chloroplast) form accounts for 85 to 90% of the total leaf activity (0.03 +/- 0.01 adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) synthesis units x gram fresh weight-1). Both enzyme forms appear to be tetramers composed of 49- to 50-kDa subunits with the minor (cytosolic) form being slightly larger than the chloroplast form. The specific activities (units x milligram protein-1) of the chloroplast form at pH 8.0, 30 degrees C, were as follows: APS synthesis, 16; molybdolysis, 229; ATP synthesis, 267; selenolysis, 4.1; fluorophosphate activation, 11. Kinetic constants for the physiological reaction were as follows: KmA = 0.046 mM, K(ia) = 0.85 mM, KmB = 0.25 mM, KmQ = 0.37 microM, K(iq) = 64-85 nM, and KmP = 10 microM, where A = MgATP, B = SO4(2-), P = total PPi at 5 mM Mg2+, and Q = APS. The kinetic constants for molybdolysis were similar to those of the APS synthesis reaction. The kinetic constants of the minor (cytosol) form were similar to those of the major form with two exceptions: (a) The molybdolysis activity was 120 units x milligram protein-1, yielding a Vmax (ATP synthesis)/Vmax (molybdolysis) ratio close to 2 (compared to about unity for the chloroplast form) and (b) KmA was greater (0.24 and 0.15 mM for APS synthesis and molybdolysis, respectively). Initial velocity measurements (made over an extended range of MgATP and SO4(2-) concentrations), product inhibition studies (by initial velocity methods and by reaction progress curve analyses), dead end inhibition studies (with monovalent and divalent oxyanions), and kcat/Km comparisons (for SO4(2-) and MoO4(2-) support a random AB-ordered PQ kinetic mechanism in which MgATP and SO4(2-) bind in a highly synergistic manner. Equilibrium binding studies indicated the presence of one APS site per subunit. HPLC elution profiles of chymotryptic and tryptic peptides were essentially the same for both enzyme forms. The N-terminal sequence of residues 5-20 of the cytosol enzyme was identical to residues 1-16 of the chloroplast enzyme.

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