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AIDS. 1993 Oct;7(10):1345-9.

A prospective study of the risk of tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients.

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  • 1Infectious Disease Unit, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients.

METHODS:

Prospective longitudinal follow-up of 839 HIV-infected patients, of whom 505 (60%) were parenteral drug users and 269 (32%) homosexual men. Tuberculin skin tests were performed at baseline and annually thereafter. Prophylaxis with isoniazid (300 mg daily for 9 months) was offered to those with a positive tuberculin test (induration > or = 5 mm). Diagnosis of TB was accepted if it could be confirmed microbiologically (acid-fast bacilli seen in Ziehl-Neelsen stains or grown in Lowenstein-Jensen cultures) or pathologically (presence of caseating granulomas) and patients had consistent clinical manifestations.

RESULTS:

Active TB developed in 23 out of the 733 (3.1%) patients with a negative tuberculin skin test after a mean follow-up of 16 +/- 11 months (range, 2-52 months), with an estimated cumulative probability of 1.5 and 7% after 1 and 3 years, respectively (or 2.4 per 100 patient-years). None of the 87 patients with a negative tuberculin test but a positive Multitest developed TB. Conversely, 106 patients had a positive tuberculin skin test (97 at baseline and nine who converted during follow-up). Active TB developed in seven out of the 26 not receiving prophylaxis or in whom prophylaxis had to be discontinued (16.2 per 100 patient-years), in four out of 61 patients 3-27 months after having completed 9 months of prophylaxis with isoniazid (8.9 per 100 patient-years) and in none of the 19 still receiving isoniazid. When TB was diagnosed, the mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the 34 patients who developed it during follow-up was 77 +/- 103 x 10(6)/l (range, 1-400 x 10(6)/l).

CONCLUSIONS:

Among HIV-infected patients in whom the tuberculin skin test is negative, the risk of developing active TB is sufficient to consider prophylaxis if the CD4 count falls below 400 x 10(6)/l, at least in those patients with skin anergy living in high-risk geographical areas such as Spain. When the tuberculin skin test was positive, isoniazid (9 months) provided a 45% protection beyond the period of its administration.

PIP:

This study sought to evaluate the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. A prospective longitudinal follow-up was carried out on 839 HIV-infected patients, of whom 505 (60%) were parenteral drug users and 269 (32%) were homosexual men. Tuberculin skin tests were performed at baseline and annually thereafter. Prophylaxis with isoniazid (300 mg daily for 9 months) was offered to those with a positive tuberculin test (induration or= 5 mm.). Diagnosis of TB was accepted if it could be confirmed microbiologically (acid-fast bacilli seen in Ziehl-Neelsen stains or grown in Lowenstein-Jensen cultures) or pathologically (presence of caseating granulomas) and patients had consistent clinical manifestations. Active TB developed in 23 of the 733 (3.1%) patients with a negative tuberculin skin test after a mean follow-up of 16 +or- 11 months (range, 2-52 months), with an estimated cumulative probability of 1.5 and 7% after 1 and 3 years, respectively (or 2.4 per 100 patient-years). None of the 87 patients with a negative tuberculin test, but a positive Multitest, developed TB. Conversely, 106 patients had a positive tuberculin skin test (97 at baseline and 9 who converted during follow-up). Active TB developed in 7 of the 26 not receiving prophylaxis or in whom prophylaxis had to be discontinued (16.2 per 100 patient-years), in 4 of 61 patients 3-27 months after having completed 9 months of prophylaxis with isoniazid (8.9 per 100 patient-years), and in none of the 19 still receiving isoniazid. When TB was diagnosed, the mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the 34 patients who developed it during follow-up was 77 +or- 103 x 106/L (range, 1-400 x 106/L). Among HIV-infected patients in whom the tuberculin skin test is negative, the risk of developing active TB is sufficient to consider prophylaxis if the CD4 count falls below 400 x 106/L, at least in those patients with skin anergy living in high-risk geographical areas such as Spain. When the tuberculin skin test was positive, isoniazid (9 months) provided a 45% protection beyond the period of its administration.

PMID:
8267907
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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