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Ann Thorac Surg. 1993 Dec;56(6):1239-47.

Pediatric cardiac transplantation for congenital heart defects: surgical considerations and results.

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Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Laënnec Hospital, Paris, France.


Among 54 children who underwent 55 heart transplantations, 24 (44%) (mean age, 4.9 +/- 4.8 years; range, 9 days to 18 years) had congenital defects with the following diagnoses: single-ventricle variants (6), hypoplastic left heart syndrome variants (5), transposition complex (6), and miscellaneous defects (7). Twenty patients (83%) had undergone 43 prior operations. Additional surgical procedures included repositioning of transposed great arteries (11), reconstruction of the aortic pathway (4), reconstruction of the pulmonary pathway (8), correction of situs inversus (1), and correction of anomalous pulmonary (1) or systemic (1) venous drainage. Reconstructive procedures were performed using donor or recipient tissue or both. There were six early deaths (hyperacute rejection, 1 patient; pulmonary hypertension, 1; graft failure, 2 patients; infection, 2) and six late deaths (sudden death, 2; chronic rejection, 2; nonspecific graft dysfunction, 1; lymphoproliferative disease, 1). The survival rate was 43% +/- 12% at 3 years. No deaths were related to surgical technique. Survival was not significantly different in pediatric recipients with cardiomyopathy (67% +/- 9%; p = 0.22). Accelerated coronary artery disease was noted in 4 operative survivors (22%; 70% confidence limits, 12% to 36%). All late survivors were free from cardiac symptoms after a mean follow-up of 34 +/- 24 months (range, 6 to 71 months). Based on this study, we reached three conclusions. (1) Careful planning of both harvesting and transplantation procedures allows heart transplantation in recipients with congenital heart diseases. (2) The surgical technique may be demanding, but the early risk is not increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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