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Pediatr Res. 1993 Oct;34(4):490-4.

Pulmonary distribution and efficacy of exogenous surfactant in lung-lavaged rabbits are influenced by the instillation technique.

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1
Department of Anaesthesiology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Surfactant bolus instillation has been reported to cause changes in arterial blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocities which may increase the risk of intraventricular haemorrhage. To avoid these effects, slow tracheal infusion was evaluated as a possible alternative method of surfactant administration. Saline lung lavages were performed in 13 anesthetized and artificially ventilated adult rabbits to produce respiratory distress syndrome. Curosurf (CS, 200 mg/kg) labeled with 14C-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (-DPPC) and/or red microspheres (RMS) was instilled into the trachea either as a single bolus (n = 8) or by infusion during 45 min via a side-channel within the wall of the tracheal tube (n = 5). An arterial cannula was placed for monitoring of blood gases and BP. To determine surfactant distribution, the lungs were cut into 60-70 pieces and radioactivity and/or the number of RMS were measured in each piece. The distribution of RMS was closely related to the distribution of 14C-DPPC (r = 0.96). Bolus instillation of CS led to a prompt and sustained increase in PaO2 (from < 10.5 to > 40 kPa within 2 min), a transient decrease in BP, and a reasonably homogeneous pulmonary surfactant distribution. Tracheal infusion of CS changed neither BP nor PaO2 during the observation period of 60 min. The pulmonary distribution of CS was extremely uneven after infusion. The distribution of exogenous surfactant and its effects on gas exchange are influenced by the instillation method. An inadequate instillation technique may add to the causes of "poor response" after surfactant replacement.

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