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Biochemistry. 1993 Nov 30;32(47):12793-801.

Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of three vinyl chloride-induced DNA lesions: 1,N6-ethenoadenine, 3,N4-ethenocytosine, and 4-amino-5-(imidazol-2-yl)imidazole.

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Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139.


The mutagenic and genotoxic properties of 1,N6-ethenoadenine (epsilon Ade), 3,N4-ethenocytosine (epsilon Cyt), and 4-amino-5-(imidazol-2-yl)imidazole (beta) were investigated in vivo. The former two modified bases are known DNA adducts formed by the human carcinogen vinyl chloride; beta is formed by pyrimidine ring-opening of epsilon Ade. Chemically synthesized deoxyhexanucleotides containing epsilon Ade and beta, d[GCT-(epsilon A)GC], and d[GCT(beta)GC], respectively, were described previously [Biochemistry (1987) 26, 5626-5635]. epsilon Cyt was inserted into an oligonucleotide, d[GCTAG(epsilon C)], by a mild enzymatic synthetic procedure, which avoided exposure of the base to alkaline conditions. 3,N4-Etheno-2'-deoxycytidine 3',5'-bisphosphate coupled with reasonable efficiency (30-40%) to the 3'-nucleoside of an acceptor pentamer, d(GCTAG), in a reaction catalyzed by T4 RNA ligase in the presence of ATP. Each of the three modified hexanucleotides and an unmodified control were inserted into a six-base gap positioned at a known site in the genome of bacteriophage M13-NheI. A nick was placed in the DNA strand opposite that containing the single DNA lesions, enabling the formation of singly adducted single-stranded genomes by denaturation. After transfection of the adducted phage DNAs into Escherichia coli, each of the adducts was found to be genotoxic. The most toxic lesion was beta, which reduced survival of the genome by 97%. epsilon Cyt and epsilon Ade reduced survival by 90% and 65%, respectively. An examination of the surviving phage populations revealed that each of the three adducts was mutagenic. The least mutagenic lesion was epsilon Ade (0.1% of the survivors were mutant), which showed primarily A-->G transitions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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