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J Mol Biol. 1993 Nov 5;234(1):28-44.

In vitro binding of the pleiotropic transcriptional regulatory protein, FruR, to the fru, pps, ace, pts and icd operons of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

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Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0116.


Evidence has been presented suggesting that the fructose repressor, FruR, is a pleiotropic transcriptional regulatory protein controlling the expression of numerous operons concerned with carbon metabolism in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. We have conducted in vitro DNA binding studies to ascertain the nature of the DNA sequences to which FruR binds. Employing both DNA band migration retardation and DNase I footprint analyses, FruR was found to bind to two operators within the regulatory region preceding the structural genes of the fructose operon, fruB(MH)KA. These two operators, O1 and O2, comprise nearly identical palindromes of 12 bp with a half-site of TGAAAC. The binding of FruR to these inverted repeats was found to be reversed by inclusion of micromolar concentrations of fructose-1-phosphate. The two operators are located between the single putative promoter of the fructose operon and the translational initiation site of the fruB gene. Other regulated operons were shown to bind FruR to a single site upstream of the first structural gene as follows: (1) ppsA (positive regulation); (2) icd (positive regulation); (3) aceB (positive regulation); and (4) pts (negative regulation). In all cases, low concentrations of fructose-1-phosphate displaced the protein from the DNA. The binding sites were determined, and a FruR consensus sequence was established. Computer searches revealed the presence of this sequence in numerous functionally diverse operons, implying that FruR is a global transcriptional regulatory protein in enteric bacteria.

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