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J Med Chem. 1993 Oct 29;36(22):3424-30.

New adenosine kinase inhibitors with oral antiinflammatory activity: synthesis and biological evaluation.

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Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0663.


Several 5-iodotubercidin analogues in the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system were synthesized as potential inhibitors of adenosine kinase by a direct Lewis acid-catalyzed glycosylation procedure using both the preformed carbohydrate and the heterocyclic base as starting materials. The 5'-hydroxyl, -chloro, -azido, -deoxy, -amino, and -fluoro derivatives were prepared and evaluated in three systems for biological activity relative to adenosine, the true substrate, and 5-iodotubercidin, a known inhibitor. First, each compound was studied kinetically for inhibition of purified human placental adenosine kinase activity. The order of potency was: iodotubercidin > hydroxyl > amino > or = deoxy > fluoro > chloro >> azido. The Ki values for the 5'-hydroxyl and 5'-amino compounds, the two most potent inhibitors, were 80 and 150 nM, respectively. The inhibition appeared to be essentially competitive in nature, although a noncompetitive component of significance for the more potent inhibitors cannot be ruled out. Second, a bioassay was conducted in which the toxicity of 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside toward human CEM lymphoblasts was reversed by varying concentrations of the compounds. The order of effectiveness of the compounds in this system, representing a functional inhibition of adenosine kinase in cultured cells, was about the same as that with the purified enzyme, except that the 5'-chloro and 5'-fluoro compounds were ineffective. Third, the 5'-hydroxyl derivative was evaluated in vivo in a rat pleurisy inflammation model and displayed biological activity at a dose of 30 mg/kg given orally. Finally, the in vitro toxicity of each compound was assessed in CEM lymphoblasts. Results indicated that the two most potent inhibitors in the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system, the 5'-hydroxyl (7) and the 5'-amino (20), were 15-fold and 75-fold, respectively, less growth inhibitory than 5-iodotubercidin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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