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Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1993 Oct;177(4):389-92.

Blood loss at time of cesarean section by method of placental removal and exteriorization versus in situ repair of the uterine incision.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson.


The current study was undertaken to determine if blood loss at the time of cesarean section is affected by method of placental removal (spontaneous versus extracted) or uterine position for repair (in situ versus exteriorized). This prospective randomized study involved 100 women who were undergoing a cesarean section. The patients were placed into one of four groups--1, spontaneous placenta detachment, in situ uterine repair; 2, spontaneous placental detachment, exteriorized uterine repair; 3, manual placental removal, in situ uterine repair, and 4, manual placental removal, exteriorized uterine repair. Patients with spontaneous placental separation (groups 1 and 2) compared with manual removal (groups 3 and 4) revealed a significant decrease in blood loss (p < 0.001). Uterine position did not significantly affect blood loss in the spontaneous group (1 and 2; p = 0.971) or the manual placental removal groups (3 and 4; p = 0.061). The hematocrit values for all groups were similar preoperatively, but postoperatively, were significantly lower in the manual removal groups when compared with the spontaneous placental separation groups (p < 0.001). The method of placental removal and not the position of the uterus at the time of its repair has a significant role in blood loss during cesarean birth.

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