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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994 Mar-Apr;33(3):400-6.

Relationships between retrospective parent reports of developmental milestones and school adjustment at ages 10 to 12 years.

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University of Rochester Center for Community Study, NY 14620.



The study's main purpose was to assess the extent to which retrospective parent reports of the child's achievement of early developmental milestones predicted later (fourth to sixth grade) adaptation to stress, and school adjustment and achievement, in a highly stressed urban sample.


Information about when children achieved key developmental milestones was obtained in individual parent interviews. Information about the child's current school adjustment and achievement was obtained from classroom teachers and school records.


Factor analysis of a 12-item developmental milestone measure yielded an interpretable two-factor solution, i.e., motor and verbal milestones. Parents of stress-resilient, compared with stress-affected, children reported significantly earlier developmental milestone mastery by their offspring on both factor and total scores. Developmental factor milestone and total scores also related modestly to indicators of good school adjustment and academic achievement at ages 10 to 12 years.


Delayed mastery of early developmental milestones may be a risk factor toward which preventive interventions can be gainfully targeted.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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