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FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1994 Jan;8(1):13-26.

The significance of the hydrophilic backbone and the hydrophobic fatty acid regions of lipid A for macrophage binding and cytokine induction.

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1
Forschungsinstitut Borstel, Institut für Experimentelle Biologie und Medizin, FRG.

Abstract

Natural partial structures of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as synthetic analogues and derivatives of lipid A were compared with respect to inhibit the binding of 125I-labelled Re-chemotype LPS to mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and to induce cytokine-release in J774.1 cells. LPS, synthetic Escherichia coli-type lipid A (compound 506) and tetraacyl precursor Ia (compound 406) inhibited the binding of 125I-LPS to macrophage-like J774.1 cells and induced the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Deacylated R-chemotype LPS preparations were completely inactive in inhibiting binding and in inducing cytokine-release. Among tetraacyl compounds, the inhibition-capacity of LPS-binding was in decreasing order: PE-4 (alpha-phosphonooxyethyl analogue of 406) > 406 >> 404 (4'-monophosphoryl partial structure of 406) > 405 (1-monophosphoryl partial structure of 406). In the case of hexaacyl preparations, compounds 506, PE-1 (alpha-phosphonooxyethyl analogue of 506) and PE-2 (differing from PE-1 in having 14:0 at positions 2 and 3 of the reducing GlcN) inhibited LPS-binding and induced cytokine release equally well, whereas preparation PE-3 (differing from PE-2 in containing a beta-phosphonooxyethyl group) showed a substantially lower capacity in binding-inhibition and cytokine-induction. The conclusion is that chemical changes in the hydrophilic lipid A backbone reduce the capacity of lipid A to bind to cells, whereas the number of fatty acids determines the capacity of lipid A to activate cells. These results indicate that the bisphosphorylated hexosamine backbone of lipid A is essential for specific binding of LPS to macrophages and that the acylation pattern plays a critical role for LPS-promoted cell activation, i.e. cytokine induction.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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