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Biometals. 1994 Apr;7(2):109-16.

Structure of vulnibactin, a new polyamine-containing siderophore from Vibrio vulnificus.

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Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.


A new siderophore named vulnibactin has been isolated from low iron cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen. The structure was established as N-[3-(2,3-dihydroxybenzamido)propyl]-1,3-bis[2-(2-hydroxy-phenyl)- trans-5 - methyl-2-oxazoline-4-carboxamido]propane by a combination of acid hydrolysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positive fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Vulnibactin is characterized as containing one residue of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid as well as two residues of salicylic acid, both of which are involved in the formation of oxazoline rings with L-threonine bound to a norspermidine backbone. In addition, two other compounds with siderophore activity were purified and their structures were also determined. These two compounds provided further support for the structure of vulnibactin.

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