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Am J Sports Med. 1994 Jan-Feb;22(1):121-30.

The role of the long head of the biceps muscle and superior glenoid labrum in anterior stability of the shoulder.

Author information

Albert B. Ferguson, Jr., M.D., Laboratory for Orthopaedic Research, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania.


The authors conducted a study to determine if the long head of the biceps muscle and its attachment at the superior glenoid labrum play a role in stability of the shoulder in an overhead position. Their study used a dynamic cadaveric shoulder model that simulated the forces of the rotator cuff and long head of biceps muscles as the glenohumeral joint was abducted and externally rotated. Their data suggest that the long head of the biceps muscle contributes to anterior stability of the glenohumeral joint by increasing the shoulder's resistance to torsional forces in the vulnerable abducted and externally rotated position. The biceps muscle also helps to diminish the stress placed on the inferior glenohumeral ligament. Detachment of the superior glenoid labrum is detrimental to anterior shoulder stability as it decreases the shoulder's resistance to torsion and places a greater magnitude of strain on the inferior glenohumeral ligament.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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