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J Neurol. 1978 Aug 25;218(4):263-74.

Hereditary bimanual synkinesis combined with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia in four brothers.


A new genetic syndrome of the combined occurrence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, anosmia (Kallmann syndrome) and congenital mirror movements in four brothers is presented. Mirror movements were manifest only within the distal parts of the upper extremities and resembled congenital mirror movements described for isolated or familial cases or those occurring in combination with other genetic defects. The hypothesis is supported, that a midline fusion disorder with preponderance of uncrossed pyramidal tract fibers is a major pathogenetic factor for the occurrence of congenital mirror movements.

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