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Cancer Res. 1994 Mar 1;54(5):1337-43.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is an immediate early response gene in regenerating rat liver.

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  • 1Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0618.


Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a M(r) 50,000 serine protease inhibitor, is the major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activation. Quiescent rat hepatocytes do not express the PAI-1 gene in vivo; however, PAI-1 is synthesized both by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and by hepatoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, PAI-1 is expressed by fibroblastic cells in vitro, in response to mitogen stimulation, suggesting a possible connection between hepatocyte PAI-1 expression and cell proliferation. To determine whether PAI-1 is an early growth response gene in hepatocytes in vivo, we analyzed its expression in regenerating rat liver. Male rats underwent partial (70%) hepatectomy (PH) or sham operation (SO), and liver samples were analyzed by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. PAI-1 mRNA was not present at time 0 h, nor at any other time in SO rats but was induced rapidly in regenerating livers, peaking at 2 h and declining to negligible levels by 8 h posthepatectomy. This induction was not inhibited by cycloheximide. In situ hybridization analysis localized PAI-1 transcripts to hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated PAI-1-specific staining in hepatocytes in the livers of both PH and SO rats, but the temporal and spatial distribution profiles differed between PH and SO rats. Our studies demonstrate that PAI-1 is an immediate early response gene, transiently expressed in regenerating liver, expression of which may be important in hepatocyte growth and proliferation in vivo.

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