Send to

Choose Destination
Virology. 1994 Feb 15;199(1):243-6.

Transactivation of human hepatitis B virus X protein, HBx, operates through a mechanism distinct from protein kinase C and okadaic acid activation pathways.

Author information

Department of Biophysics, Medical School, Kanazawa University, Japan.


Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein, HBx, transactivates virus and host genes through a wide variety of cis-elements. Expression of HBx is controlled by HBV enhancer 1 (Enh1). Both Enh1 and the core sequence of Enh1, which consists of an AP-1 related site (cFAP1) and a C stretch, respond to HBx and a phorbol ester (TPA). Biochemical pathways of the responses to HBx and TPA are still controversial. We therefore asked whether HBx and TPA stimulate Enh1 core activity through a common process. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H-7 and staurosporin, did not inhibit HBx transactivation at concentrations sufficient to abolish the TPA effects in HepG2 cells. Although HBx transactivation synergized independently with TPA or a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid (OA), the PKC inhibitors eliminated only the TPA contribution. HBx transactivation required both the cFAP1 and the C stretch of the Enh1 core region; however, mutations in either or both of the two cis-elements demonstrated that TPA augmentation required only cFAP1. These results imply that HBx transactivation operates through a mechanism distinct from the PKC and OA activation pathways.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center