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J Biomech. 1994 Jan;27(1):25-34.

Tendon action of two-joint muscles: transfer of mechanical energy between joints during jumping, landing, and running.

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1
Biomechanics Laboratory, Central Institute of Physical Culture, Moscow, Russia.

Abstract

The amount of mechanical energy transferred by two-joint muscles between leg joints during squat vertical jumps, during landings after jumping down from a height of 0.5 m, and during jogging were evaluated experimentally. The experiments were conducted on five healthy subjects (body height, 1.68-1.86 m; and mass, 64-82 kg). The coordinates of the markers on the body and the ground reactions were recorded by optical methods and a force platform, respectively. By solving the inverse problem of dynamics for the two-dimensional, four-link model of a leg with eight muscles, the power developed by the joint (net muscular) moments and the power developed by each muscle were determined. The energy transferred by two-joint muscles from and to each joint was determined as a result of the time integration of the difference between the power developed at the joint by the joint moment, and the total power of the muscles serving a given joint. It was shown that during a squat vertical jump and in the push-off phase during running, the two-joint muscles (rectus femoris and gastrocnemius) transfer mechanical energy from the proximal joints of the leg to the distal ones. At landing and in the shock-absorbing phase during running, the two-joint muscles transfer energy from the distal to proximal joints. The maximum amount of energy transferred from the proximal joints to distal ones was equal to 178.6 +/- 45.7 J (97.1 +/- 27.2% of the work done by the joint moment at the hip joint) at the squat vertical jump. The maximum amount of energy transferred from the distal to proximal joints was equal to 18.6 +/- 4.2 J (38.5 +/- 36.4% of work done by the joint moment at the ankle joint) at landing. The conclusion was made that the one-joint muscles of the proximal links compensate for the deficiency in work production of the distal one-joint muscles by the distribution of mechanical energy between joints through the two-joint muscles. During the push-off phase, the muscles of the proximal links help to extend the distal joints by transferring to them a part of the generated mechanical energy. During the shock-absorbing phase, the muscles of the proximal links help the distal muscles to dissipate the mechanical energy of the body.

PMID:
8106533
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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