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J Med Chem. 1993 Jul 23;36(15):2219-27.

Biologically active conformers of phenothiazines and thioxanthenes. Further evidence for a ligand model of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists.

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Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts 02178.


Conformational analyses have been performed on several phenothiazine and thioxanthene dopamine antagonists using the MM2-87 program and parameter set. The compounds that were examined are thioridazine (2), methotrimeprazine (3), cis- and trans-chlorprothixene, and a piperidylidene derivative of chlorprothixene. In addition, (+)-2 and (-)-3 were determined by X-ray crystallography to have the R absolute configuration. The above compounds were superimposed onto loxapine, which was used as a template for the previously proposed dopamine D2 receptor ligand model. The conformational properties and receptor affinities of these compounds were found to be entirely consistent with the ligand model. For example, a conformer of (+)-R-2 that is consistent with the ligand model is lower in energy than a consistent conformer for (-)-S-2, which agrees with the higher D2 receptor affinity of the former. Similarly, in agreement with the much higher affinity of (-)-R-3 relative to (+)-S-3, only the former contains a low energy conformer consistent with the ligand model. The ligand model is also consistent with the greater potency of cis-thioxanthenes over the trans isomers. These results emphasize the importance of the correct orientation of the ammonium hydrogen for high affinity at the D2 receptor. The pharmacophore for D2 receptor ligands is compared with a recently proposed pharmacophore for D1 ligands.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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