Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Med. 1994 Sep;97(3):250-5.

Gravidity, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes among Pima Indian women.

Author information

Department of Diabetes, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 85014.



To evaluate the relationships among gravidity, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indian women.


Pima Indian women (n = 2,779) participating in a longitudinal epidemiologic study of diabetes were evaluated in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.


The prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes was higher among women who had never been pregnant than among those who had been pregnant (age- and obesity-adjusted odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.5 to 2.7). Controlled for age and obesity, nondiabetic women who had never been pregnant had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations by 2% (P = 0.004), higher fasting serum insulin concentrations by 8% (P = 0.09), and higher 2-hour serum insulin concentrations by 10% (P = 0.07) than nondiabetic women who had been pregnant. Among 1,025 women observed for an average of 8 years, those who had not been pregnant by the baseline examination were at significantly higher risk for developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes before the age of 40 years (incidence rate ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 2.1), but that difference could be accounted for by a higher degree of obesity.


We hypothesize that Pima Indian women who have a high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes develop obesity and hyperinsulinemia at an early age, and that may be responsible for decreased fertility because of associated changes in sex hormones.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center