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Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Sep;60(3):312-9.

Acute thermogenic effects of nicotine combined with caffeine during light physical activity in male and female smokers.

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Department of Psychiatry and Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA 15213.


The thermogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine during physical activity compared with rest were examined in male and female smokers (n = 10 each). During eight sessions, nicotine (15 micrograms/kg) or placebo was given via measured-dose nasal spray intermittently after consumption of decaffeinated coffee with or without added caffeine (5 mg/kg), followed by assessment of energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry while subjects engaged in standardized, low-intensity cycle ergometer riding (activity) or remained at quiet rest. Results indicated significant thermogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine individually, with the combination of nicotine and caffeine producing additive effects. Expenditure attributable to nicotine, caffeine, or their combination was significantly enhanced during activity compared with rest, but only for males and not females. Plasma nicotine concentrations were influenced by activity and caffeine, but these pharmacokinetic changes did not appear to explain the differences in expenditure. These findings suggest a sex difference in thermogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine during casual physical activity and potentially explain some of the apparent individual variability in expenditure due to tobacco smoking.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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