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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1994 Jun;23(2):359-77.

Licorice-induced hypertension and syndromes of apparent mineralocorticoid excess.

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Department of Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Scotland, United Kingdom.


Excessive ingestion of licorice induces a syndrome of hypokalemia and hypertension that reflects increased activation of renal mineralocorticoid receptors by cortisol. A similar syndrome of cortisol-dependent mineralocorticoid excess occurs in congenital deficiency of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which normally inactivates cortisol to cortisone. It has been shown that licorice inhibits 11 beta-dehydrogenase, preventing local inactivation of cortisol and allowing cortisol inappropriate access to intrinsically nonspecific renal mineralocorticoid receptors. Further studies with licorice and its derivatives have revealed a widespread role for 11 beta-dehydrogenase in regulating tissue sensitivity to cortisol. Deficient 11 beta-dehydrogenase activity provides a novel pathogenetic mechanism for hypertension, and current research suggests that several common forms of hypertension can be explained by the mechanisms that operate in licorice-induced hypertension.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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