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Photochem Photobiol. 1994 Jun;59(6):621-6.

The use of tetrazolium salts to determine sites of damage to the mitochondrial electron transport chain in intact cells following in vitro photodynamic therapy with Photofrin II.

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1
Department of Dermatology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263.

Abstract

A method is described utilizing the tetrazolium salts neotetrazolium chloride (NTC), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), C,N-diphenyl-N'-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and various substrates to elucidate damage to the mitochondrial electron transport chain of intact cells following in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT). Using this methodology, a portion of the dark toxicity manifested by Photofrin II (PII) was found to occur prior to entry of electrons into the transport chain through Complex I, as evidenced by the fact that the inhibition of MTT reduction was reversible by the addition of malic acid to the culture media. A second site of dark toxicity was found to be Complex IV (cytochrome oxidase). After photoirradiation of the cells, Complex I was found to be affected since malic acid could no longer reverse the inhibition of MTT reduction but it could be reversed by the addition of succinic acid, whose electrons enter the transport chain at Complex II. A second and more sensitive site of photoirradiation damage was found to be Complex IV. A region near cytochrome C was also affected by photoirradiation but appreciably less so than noted for Complexes I and IV. A kinetic analysis of MTT and TTC reduction following photoirradiation indicated that MTT reduction was sustained at a normal rate for 1 h after which it slowed down and eventually plateaued. In contrast, TTC reduction was found to be inhibited almost immediately indicating Complex IV is extremely susceptible to photoirradiation damage. Compared to other assays of mitochondrial function requiring subcellular fractionation, the use of tetrazolium salts is simpler to perform and can be done using physiologically relevant conditions.

PMID:
8066121
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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