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Oncogene. 1994 Sep;9(9):2537-47.

Regulation of Fra-1 and Fra-2 phosphorylation differs during the cell cycle of fibroblasts and phosphorylation in vitro by MAP kinase affects DNA binding activity.

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Department of Molecular Biology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000.


The Fos family of transcription factors, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2, are rapidly induced in quiescent fibroblasts following serum or growth factor stimulation. The Fos proteins show distinct patterns of expression during cell growth with only Fra-1 and Fra-2 maintained at significant levels in growing cells, suggesting that the different family members direct unique functions for cell growth. Post-translational modification of Fos proteins has been observed following serum stimulation, which may allow an additional level of regulation. Our studies show that the synthesis and post-translational modification of Fra-1 and Fra-2 in Swiss 3T3 cells is serum-dependent during G1 following the transition from G0 and during asynchronous growth but is serum-independent during S phase and mitosis. Post-translational modification of Fra-1 and Fra-2 causes a significant shift in their gel mobility which is eliminated by alkaline phosphatase treatment. Several kinases can phosphorylate Fra-1 and Fra-2 in vitro, including cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cdc2 (cdc2), and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. From these, MAP kinase is the only one that causes a shift in gel mobility similar to that observed in vivo. One dimensional phosphopeptide maps of Fra-1 and Fra-2 phosphorylated by MAP kinase in vitro are similar to those of in vivo labeled Fra-1 and Fra-2, suggesting that MAP kinase may also phosphorylate Fra-1 and Fra-2 in vivo. We have also determined that phosphorylation of Fra-1 and Fra-2 by MAP kinase increases their DNA binding activity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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