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J Learn Disabil. 1994 Apr;27(4):243-53.

Congruence of behavioral symptomatology in children with ADD/H, ADD/WO, and learning disabilities.

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Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center.


Although evidence generally supports the behavioral differentiation of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H) and attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), a growing body of literature suggests that children with learning disabilities (LD) share behavioral symptomatology with children diagnosed as having ADD/WO. The present study examined this issue by comparing parent and teacher behavioral ratings among groups of children diagnosed as having ADD/H, ADD/WO, and LD on symptoms of impulsivity, inattention, and social withdrawal. The subjects were 77 outpatients in a diagnostic and referral-service clinic who were divided into three groups. Group 1 included children with a primary diagnosis of ADD/H (n = 35), Group 2 included children with a primary diagnosis of ADD/WO (n = 25), and Group 3 included children with a primary diagnosis of learning disabilities (n = 17). The results indicated that parents and teachers view children with ADD/H as more disruptive than children with ADD/WO or LD. Children with ADD/WO or LD were described as more underactive and shy and as daydreaming more often than children with ADD/H. Teachers rated children with ADD/WO and LD as being similar to each other on symptoms of withdrawal and impulsivity, but both parents and teachers endorsed different symptoms of inattention for children with ADD/WO or LD. Issues related to comorbidity and differentiation of behavioral symptomatology are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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