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Ergonomics. 1994 Jul;37(7):1213-26.

Quantitative morphology of the human foot in a North American population.

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Sport Anthropology Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.


A comprehensive series of variables that describe the essential three dimensional characteristics of the human foot is presented together with descriptive statistics derived from a diverse civilian population (n = 1197), representing a wide age range (18-85 years) and randomly selected in terms of physical demands placed upon the foot in the course of a normal working day. The paper illustrates the effect of linear scaling of the first, second and fifth digit lengths upon forefoot shape. The ratio of the pternion to metatarsale tibiale and fibulare lengths determine the angle and position of the axis across the metatarsal-phalangeal joint (MPJ). The height of the hallux, MPJ, dorsum, and arch are shown to vary independently from all other variables and in conjunction with akropodion to dorsum length and dorsum to distal heel length, provide the necessary information for describing the characteristics of the foot in the sagittal plane. Girth measures provide serial information across the foot in the coronal plane to complete comprehensive data on the three dimensional shape of the foot.

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