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Am J Prev Med. 1994 Mar-Apr;10(2):91-6.

Smoking prevalence during pregnancy for women who are and women who are not Medicaid-funded.

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Institute for Health and Population Research, Lovelace Institutes, Albuquerque, NM 87108.


Maternal smoking has been related to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although maternal smoking prevalence has decreased over time, certain populations have retained a high smoking prevalence and remain at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study used the Washington State First Steps Program Database to estimate the difference in maternal smoking prevalence between mothers whose prenatal or delivery care was Medicaid-funded and mothers whose care was not Medicaid-funded. We evaluated differences in maternal smoking prevalence between these two groups by marital status, race, adequacy of prenatal care, and age. Among the Medicaid-funded mothers, the age-adjusted maternal smoking prevalence was 44.4% versus 16.3% for those not Medicaid-funded. Among married Medicaid-funded mothers, the smoking prevalence was 2.6 times higher in whites, 1.4 times higher in blacks, and 1.8 times higher in American Indians than for married mothers not funded by Medicaid. Among single Medicaid-funded mothers, the rate was 1.4 times higher in whites and 1.7 times higher in blacks. Differences in smoking prevalence were most apparent among older mothers. For single white and single black mothers, the smoking prevalence increased with increasing maternal age among both Medicaid-funded and other women. Adequacy of prenatal care also influences smoking prevalence. For white and black mothers, the maternal smoking prevalence was lower for those receiving adequate prenatal care than for mothers of the same race who received inadequate prenatal care. The increased maternal smoking prevalence in older single mothers and the higher maternal smoking prevalence in women with Medicaid-funded deliveries suggest that infants born to these mothers may be particularly susceptible to smoking-related health effects.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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