Send to

Choose Destination
J Comp Neurol. 1994 May 22;343(4):566-81.

Differential localization of two glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD65 and GAD67) in adult monkey visual cortex.

Author information

Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.


Adult monkey primary visual cortex contains a diverse population of stellate neurons that utilize the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzymes that synthesize GABA, GAD65 and GAD67, were localized within these stellate neurons by in situ hybridization of 35S or digoxigenin (DIG) labeled riboprobes. Double labels were done by using 35S GAD67 riboprobe and GABA immunocytochemistry on the same section to verify that the neuronal population identified by immunocytochemistry was the same one studied in the in situ hybridization experiments. We find that GAD65 mRNA and GAD67 mRNA are widely distributed in the cortex, with four bands of heavily labeled neurons in upper layer 2, lower 3, 4C, and 6. GAD67 labeled neurons were more obvious in layer 4C beta, while GAD65 containing neurons were common in layer 1 and white matter. Northern blots and in situ hybridization on sections with both 35S and DIG riboprobes indicate that cortical neurons typically contain more GAD67 mRNA. Cell counts show that 18% of all cortical neurons contain GAD67 mRNA and 13% contain GAD65 mRNA, suggesting that a small population of GABA neurons might lack GAD65. Cell bodies that contain high amounts of GAD65 mRNA are prominent in layers deep 3, 4B, 4C alpha, and 6 and often are the largest cells in their respective layers. Double labels demonstrate that 96% of all GABA+ neurons contain GAD67 mRNA. Neurons heavily labeled for GABA tend to have smaller cell bodies and contain less GAD67 mRNA, while lightly labeled GABA neurons are larger and contain more GAD67 mRNA. These data indicate that most GABA neurons in monkey striate cortex contain both GAD enzymes. Although the differences in GABA content, cell size, laminar distribution, and GAD mRNA concentration suggest different requirements for GAD67 and GAD65 in cortical circuits, our experiments do not reveal what different roles these two enzymes subserve within GABAergic stellate neurons.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center