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Cancer Res. 1978 Oct;38(10):3123-39.

Type D primate retroviruses: a review.


The prototype virus of the type D retroviruses is the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV). MPMV was originally isolated from a breast carcinoma of a female rhesus monkey (an Old World monkey). MPMV is of obvious importance in that it is the only retrovirus thus far isolated from a mammary tumor of a primate and has been shown to have transforming potential for primate cells in vitro. Subsequent to the isolation of MPMV viruses morphologically and immunologically indistinguishable from MPMV have been isolated from normal placenta and lactating mammary glands of other rhesus monkeys in captivity. Recently, viruses morphologically resembling MPMV have been isolated from a langur monkey (another Old World monkey) and from squirrel monkeys (a New World monkey). Based on nucleic acid hybridization studies, the latter 2 viruses represent endogenous viruses in their species of origin, whereas MPMV appears to be a horizontally related to the langur monkey isolate. Studies on the immunological relatedness of the type D retroviruses have demonstrated interspecies cross-reactivities between the major internal and external proteins of the viruses. Furthermore, these viruses also share cross-reactivity of their major external glycoproteins with those of the type C baboon endogenous virus. These interspecies reactivities can also be demonstrated in natural sera from both imported and laboratory-bred monkeys. The demonstration of these interspecies cross-reactivities shared by distantly related primate retroviruses provides a means for detecting determinants that are representative of all primate retroviruses presently known and yet to be isolated and may provide new assays for detection of a human retrovirus.

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