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Vaccine. 1994 Apr;12(5):419-26.

Synergistic action of cholera toxin B subunit (and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit) and a trace amount of cholera whole toxin as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine.

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Department of Pathology, National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan.


Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LTB) (2 micrograms), each supplemented with a trace amount of cholera toxin (CT) (0.02-20 ng), were examined for the adjuvant effect on antibody (Ab) response against influenza inactivated HA (haemagglutinin) vaccine in Balb/c mice. Each mouse received a primary intranasal (i.n.) inoculation of the vaccine (1.5 micrograms) and the CT-containing CTB and in 4 weeks a second i.n. inoculation of the vaccine alone. The primary inoculation of the vaccine with CTB alone did not induce either anti-HA IgA or IgG Ab response, or haemagglutination-inhibition Ab responses in the serum. The vaccine with less than 2 ng of CT also failed to induce Ab response. On the other hand, the vaccine with CT-containing CTB induced a high Ab response, which increased depending on the CT dose. Moreover, the second vaccine induced a response more than ten times higher than the primary one and the response increased depending on the CT dose. Similar enhancement was found in the local anti-HA IgA Ab response in the nasal wash. Such synergistic effects were observed also between LTB and CT. The amount of Ab produced by the synergism was considered to be enough to protect against virus infection. These results suggest that CTB (or LTB) containing a trace amount of CT (about 0.1%) can be used practically as a potent adjuvant for nasal vaccination of humans against influenza.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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