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J Comp Neurol. 1994 Apr 15;342(3):335-51.

Neuropeptides myomodulin, small cardioactive peptide, and buccalin in the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis: purification, immunoreactivity, and artifacts.

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Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.


The neuropeptides myomodulin, small cardioactive peptide (SCP), and buccalin are widely distributed in the phylum Mollusca and have important physiological functions. Here, we describe the detailed distribution of each class of peptide in the central nervous system (CNS) of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis by the use of immunocytochemical techniques combined with dye-marking of electrophysiologically identified neurons. We report the isolation and structural characterization of a Lymnaea myomodulin, PMSMLRLamide, identical to myomodulin A of Aplysia californica. Myomodulin immunoreactivity was localized in all 11 ganglia, in their connectives, and in peripheral nerves. In many cases, myomodulin immunoreactivity appeared localized in neuronal clusters expressing FMRFamide-like peptides, but also in a large number of additional neurons. Double-labelling experiments demonstrated myomodulin immunoreactivity in the visceral white interneuron, involved in regulation of cardiorespiration. SCP-like immunoreactivity also appeared in all ganglia, and double-labelling experiments revealed that in many locations it was specifically associated with clusters expressing distinct exons of the FMRFamide gene that are differentially expressed in the CNS. Characterization of the two types of SCP-antisera used in this study, however, suggested that they cross-reacted with both FMRFamide and N-terminally extended FMRFamide-like peptides. Selective preadsorption with these cross-reacting peptides resulted in elimination of the widespread staining and retention of bona fide SCP immunoreactivity in the buccal and pedal ganglia only. Buccalin immunoreactivity was limited to the buccal and pedal ganglia. It did not coincide with the distribution of either myomodulin or SCP. Most immunoreactive clusters were found in the pedal ganglia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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