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Am J Vet Res. 1994 Apr;55(4):477-9.

Tonometry of normal eyes in raptors.

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Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616-8745.


An applanation tonometer was used to estimate intraocular pressure in normal eyes of several species of raptors. No bird had active injury or illness, though some were nonreleasable to the wild because of previous injury. Mean (+/- SD) intraocular pressure was 20.6 (+/- 3.4) mm of Hg in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, n = 10), 20.8 (+/- 2.3) mm of Hg in Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni, n = 6), 21.5 (+/- 3.0) mm of Hg in golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, n = 7), 20.6 (+/- 2.0) mm of Hg in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, n = 3), and 10.8 (+/- 3.6) mm of Hg in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus, n = 6). There was no significant difference in intraocular pressure between hawks and eagles. Mean pressure in great horned owls was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than pressure in hawks or eagles. Reliable intraocular pressure readings could not be obtained in barn owls (Tyto alba).

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