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J Cell Biochem. 1994 Apr;54(4):423-31.

Organization and expression of H1 histone and H1 replacement histone genes.

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Georg August Universität Göttingen, Institut für Biochemie und Molekulare Zellbiologie, Germany.


The H1 family is the most divergent subgroup of the highly conserved class of histone proteins [Cole: Int J Pept Protein Res 30:433-449, 1987]. In several vertebrate species, the H1 complement comprises five or more subtypes, and tissue specific patterns of H1 histones have been described. The diversity of the H1 histone family raises questions about the functions of different H1 subtypes and about the differential control of expression of their genes. The expression of main type H1 genes is coordinated with DNA replication, whereas the regulation of synthesis of replacement H1 subtypes, such as H1 zero and H5, and the testis specific H1t appears to be more complex. The differential control of H1 gene expression is reflected in the chromosomal organization of the genes and in different promoter structures. This review concentrates on a comparison of the chromosomal organization of main type and replacement H1 histone genes and on the differential regulation of their expression. General structural and functional data, which apply to both H1 and core histone genes and which are covered by recent reviews, will not be discussed in detail.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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