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Vaccine. 1994 Sep;12(12):1083-9.

Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunits supplemented with a trace amount of the holotoxin as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine.

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Department of Pathology, National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan.


Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) (2 micrograms), supplemented with a trace amount of the holotoxin (LT) (0.02-20 ng), was examined for the adjuvant effect on antibody (Ab) responses against influenza inactivated haemagglutinin (HA) vaccine in Balb/c mice. Each mouse received a primary intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with the vaccine (1.5 micrograms), prepared from PR8 (H1N1) virus, together with LT-containing LTB and in 4 weeks a second i.n. inoculation of the vaccine alone. The inoculation of the vaccine with the LT-containing LTB induced significantly high primary and secondary anti-HA IgA and IgG Ab responses in the nasal wash and the serum, while the vaccine with LTB or less than 2 ng of LT induced little response. The synergistic adjuvant effect was maximal in the concentration of LTB supplemented with 0.2-2 ng of LT. Under these conditions, the augmented IgA and IgG Ab responses, which are cross-protective to PR8 HA molecules, provided complete cross-protection against PR8 virus challenge in mice immunized with heterologous vaccine within the same subtype. These results suggest that LTB containing a trace amount of LT can be used as a potent adjuvant for nasal vaccination of humans against influenza.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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