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Addict Behav. 1994 Jul-Aug;19(4):381-91.

Planning a spit tobacco cessation intervention: identification of beliefs associated with addiction.

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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco 94143-0560.


We examine the relationship between beliefs regarding spit tobacco (ST) use and addiction among 473 male college athletes who currently use ST. Beliefs were assessed using methods prescribed by the Theory of Reasoned Action. Independent associations between beliefs and addiction, defined by self-reported amount of ST used per week, were found via multivariate polychotomous regression modeling. We found that with increasing addiction level, athletes were significantly more likely to believe that "ST helps me relax," "ST keeps me alert," "ST tastes good," and "ST is addicting." All athletes believed that clinicians, parents, and girlfriends do not approve of their ST use, but that male peers, coaches, and professional athletes are fairly indifferent about it. To increase quit rates, highly addicted ST users may require an intensive cessation program including nicotine replacement to overcome symptoms of withdrawal, oral substitutes for the enjoyable taste of ST, and the support of male peers and athletes who influence their social norms.

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